Introduction      The span of management is also known as the ‘Span of control’. The span of management is related to the horizontal levels of the organization structure. There is a wide and narrow span of management. With the wider span, there will be fewer hierarchical levels, and thus, the organizational structure would be flatter. Whereas, with the narrow span, the hierarchical levels increase, hence the organizational structure would be tall. EXAMPLE:- As a manager will 10 direct reports have a span of management of 10.   The Span of Management has two implications: Influences the complexities of the individual manager’s job Determine the shape or configuration of the Organization ·          DEFINITION:   The  Span of Management  refers to the number of subordinates who can be managed efficiently by a superior. Simply, the manager has a group of subordinates who report to him directly is called the span of management. ·         TYPES OF SPAN OF MANAGE

Concept of Pointer

  A pointer is one of the important concepts in C and C++. A pointer is a variable that stores a memory address. It sounds so simple! But, what is a memory address?  Every variable is located under unique location within a computer's memory and this unique location has its own unique address, the memory address. Normally, variables hold values such as 5 or “ aseem ” and these values are stored under specific location within computer memory. However, pointer is a different beast, because it holds the memory address as its value and has an ability to “point” (hence pointer) to certain value within a memory, by use of its associated memory address.   To better understand pointers, it sometimes helps to compare a “normal variable” with a pointer. When a “normal variable” is declared, memory is claimed for that variable. Let’s say you declare an integer variable ASEEM. Four bytes of memory is set aside for that variable. The location in memory is known by the name ASEEM. At the machi

concept of Training

Training constitutes a basic concept in human resource development. It is concerned with developing a  particular skill to a desired standard by instruction and practice. Training is a highly useful tool that can  bring an employee into a position where they can do their job correctly, effectively, and conscientiously. Needs for Training: Organizational complexity :  With modern inventions, technological upgradation, and diver­sification most of the organizations have become very complex. So, in order to cope up with the complexities, training has become mandatory. To match employee specifications with the job requirements and organizational needs :  An employee’s specification may not exactly suit to the requirements of the job and the organization, irrespective of past experience and skills Environmental  changes:  The organization should train the employees to enrich them with the latest technology and knowledge. Types of Training: Various types of training can be given

Economy and Society (circa 300 BCE to circa 300 CE)(MA-History)

                                                                                                           ( Dr. Mohd Ashraf Dar) Expansion of Agrarian Economy: Expansion of agrarian economy from 300 BCE to 300 CE was a result of many factors. Use of Iron for making agricultural tools helped in bringing large tracts of land under plough by clearing dense forests. Prior to the use of iron, wooden ploughshares were used to till the soil which was suitable for loamy soil of upper Gangetic region while as the hard soil of Magadha needed an iron ploughshare for tilling. With the use of iron implements, it became possible to dig out canals for irrigation which boosted agriculture by emancipating it from the danger of monsoon failure. Megasthenes mentions the rules and officers employed to safeguard smooth irrigation, the production of more agricultural produce attracted more people towards this fold which led to the cultivation on more land, hitherto fallow. Paddy was cultivated in the reg

Foreign Invasions, Kushanas, Gandhara School of Art(MA-History)

                                                                                                                       ( Dr. Mohd Ashraf Dar) The political disintegration of India invited some foreign invaders as well. Bactrians, Sakas, Parthians, and Kushanas invaded India as there was not a strong unified Indian force like that of Mauryas anymore. Bactrians or Indo-Greeks were the first to invade India after the fall of the Mauryan Empire. Demetrios the son of Euthydemos reduced to submission a considerable part of Afghanistan, Punjab, and Sind and founded many cities on his own name or that of his father. Menander (Milinda) 9 was from this house and ruled gloriously at Sakala (modern Sialkot in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan). The Greeks were followed by the Sakas ( Shakas ) or Scythians who destroyed the Greek power in both Bactria and India and controlled a much bigger part of India than the Greeks. There were five branches of Sakas with their seats of power in different parts o

Introduction to Phonetics(MA-English)

                                                                                                  Dr. Devendra Kumar Tiwari Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that deals with the study of speech sounds. Four basic skills of language like Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing (SLRW) are used for communication purposes. For reading and writing 26 graphemes (alphabet) are used and these graphemes are divided into vowel (05) consonant (21) however for speaking and listening in the English language, its user needs to know 44 four sounds. It means the total number of speech sounds in the English language is 44 which are further divided into vowel sounds(20) and consonant sounds (24). Need of Phonetics:  the English language has become a global language nowadays but it is the native language of a handful of countries such  as the   USA ,  UK, Canada ,  Australia ,  Ireland ,  New Zealand ,  etc. However it has become a lingua franca of many non-native countries and there is a lot of va